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Suradan

Rosita / Hyeronima alchorneoides

Local Names
Franelo, Bully tree, Curtidor, Nanciton, Pantano, Carne asada, Trompillo, Cargamanto Casaco, Suradan, Sangue-de-boi, Urucurana, Pilon, Sangre de Toro.
Distribution & Tree
Ranges from southern Mexico to southern Brazil including the Guianas, Peru, and Colombia and parts of the West Indies. Suradan is a massive canopy-emergent tree of lowland humid mixed tropical forests, including those waterlogged in the rainy season. Its range varies from abundant in seasonal marshes to rare in old forests on heavy soils. Large straight trees with spreading rounded buttresses; reaching heights of 50 meters with trunk diameters up to 100 cm or more. The bole tends to be straight with very little taper, and un-branched up to a height of 20 m or more.
Wood Appearance
Similar to black walnut in color, the heartwood is a light reddish-brown, to chocolate-brown, to dark red; sapwood is pinkish-white. Luster is low, texture moderately coarse, and grain is interlocked. Tangential surfaces have parabolic markings due to variations in color at the margins of seasonal growth increments.
Processing Properties
The wood is reported to have good working properties in sanding, boring, and mortising but not planing which can result in chipped grain due to the interwoven grain. Holds screws and nails well. The finish is excellent when at least 3 layers of sealer is applied due to the big size of the pores. Because of the wood’s natural beauty, it is recommendable to use a transparent finish. The wood air seasons rapidly with only a moderate amount of warp and surface checking developing. Some researchers have found material containing stones of calcium oxalate; silica content is low.
Strength & Durability
The moderately heavy wood (with a density comparable to pignut hickory) is rated moderately durable to very durable in ground contact based on laboratory pure culture evaluations as well as experience in railroad track. Resistant to moderately resistant to subterranean and dry-wood termites. Both heartwood and sapwood are reported to treat moderately well using both open tank and pressure-vacuum systems. A test by the Netherlands Railway found untreated ties from Brazil to be more durable than treated white oak ties from the United States.
Wood Uses
Heavy construction, railway crossties, bridges, marine pilings, columns and beams, furniture, slabs, cabinet work, decorative veneers, flooring, turnery, fence posts, boatbuilding, and joinery.
Ecological & Social Importance
The seeds of suradan contain oil that is effective against intestinal parasites (anti-helminthic). The bark has a bitter odor due to high tannin content. Indeed, its name in Honduras, curtidor, refers to its use in tanning leather. The common name pilon refers to the use of the wood as a mortar for grinding maize.
Reference Species with Similar Density & Hardness
Technical CharacteristicsSuradanSugar MapleBlack Locust
Densitykg/m3769710770
Janka Hardnesskgf730658771
Bending Stiffness (Modulus of Elasticity)GPa14.512.614.1
Bending Strength (Modulus of Rupture)MPa132.8109.0133.8
Crushing StrengthMPa66.654.070.3
Shrinkage, Radial%4.3%4.8%4.6%
Shrinkage, Tangential%10.4%9.9%7.2%
Shrinkage, Volumetric%14.2%14.7%10.2%
T/R Ratio2.42.11.6
Values determined at 12% humidity - Provided for reference only

DENSITY

JANKA HARDNESS

BENDING STIFFNESS

BENDING STRENGTH

CRUSHING STRENGTH

SHRINKAGE

Values are for reference only and cannot be guaranteed. Wood is a natural material and physical and mechanical properties may vary depending on age, genetics, and other factors. We encourage customers to consult the references provided in the bibliography. For further explanations of wood’s key technical characteristics, an excellent resource is the Wood Database with articles on Density (average dried weight); Janka hardness; Elastic Modulus; Rupture Modulus; Crushing Strength; Radial, Tangential and Volumetric Shrinkage.

ReferencesView Source
"Guía de Especies Forestales de Nicaragua." Orgut Consulting AB. MARENA/INAFOR. 2002
"Maderas de Panamá: Catálogo Maderas de Panamá" WWF.
Chuagaca, Pantano. Laboratorio de Productos Forestales. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. 2018.
Comvalius, L.B. "Surinamese Timber Species: Characteristics and Utilization." Djinipi N.V. 2001.
Cordero, J. Boshier, D. "Arboles de Centroamerica: Un manual para extensionistas." Oxford/Catie. 2003
Cordero, J. Boshier, D. "Arboles de Centroamerica: Un manual para extensionistas." Oxford/Catie. 2003
Hyeronima alchorneoides. Vozzo, J.A. (ed) "Manual de Semillas de Arboles Tropicales." 2010.
Longwood, F. R. "Present and potential commercial timbers of the Caribbean." Agriculture Handbook No. 207. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1962.
Standley, PC. Williams, LO. Gibson, DN. "Flora of Guatemala." Volume 24. Field Museum of Natural History. 1974.
Suradan. Wood Technology Transfer Fact Sheets. Forest Products Laboratory. USDA Forest Service.
Urucarana. ITTO Lesser Known Species.
Vignote Peña "Principales Maderas Tropicales Utilizadas en España." Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
World Agroforestry Centre database